Selected applications of novel techniques in Agricultural Biotechnology, Health Food formulations and Medical Biotechnology are being reviewed with the aim of unraveling future developments and policy changes that are likely to open new markets for Biotechnology and prevent the shrinking or closing of existing ones. Amongst the selected novel techniques with applications in both Agricultural and Medical Biotechnology are: immobilized bacterial cells and enzymes, microencapsulation and liposome production, genetic manipulation of microorganisms, development of novel vaccines from plants, epigenomics of mammalian cells and organisms, and biocomputational tools for molecular modeling related to disease and Bioinformatics. Both fundamental and applied aspects of the emerging new techniques are being discussed in relation to their anticipated, marked impact on future markets and present policy changes that are needed for success in either Agricultural or Medical Biotechnology. The novel techniques are illustrated with figures that attempt to convey-albeit in a simplified manner-the most important features of representative and powerful tools that are currently being developed for both immediate and longterm applications in Agriculture, Health Food formulation and production, pharmaceuticals and Medicine. The research aspects are naturally emphasized in our review as they are key to further developments in Biotechnology; however, the course adopted for the implementation of biotechnological applications, and the policies associated with biotechnological applications in the market place, are clearly the determining factors for future Biotechnology successes in the world markets, be they pharmaceutical, medical or agricultural. * Corresponding Author.
17 Figures and Tables
Table 1. Immobilization Methods for Whole Microbial Cells. (SOURCE : Witter 1996, Ch. 10 in : “ Physical Chemistry of Foods” Vol.2, Baianu et al Eds. 1996).
Fig 1. Photomicrograph of Soy Lecithin microcapsules of about one micron in size. (SOURCE: Baianu et al 1993).
Fig 2. Simplified representation of the molecular organization of a liposome microcapsule in water.
Table 3. Characterization of Liposome Properties by Various Techniques.
Fig 4. The effect of Soy Lecithin Concentration on the Storage Life of Liposomes. Release of
Table 4. Databases for Molecular modeling
Fig 5. Phase diagram of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-l- phosphatidilcholine water. From Chapman et al 1967.
Table 5: Amphipathic potentials of predicted helical segments in apolipoprotein models.
Fig 6. Microfluidizer employed to microencapsulate enzymes and food proteins in food products.
Figure 6. Energy Refined models of apo-Lp III and the template apo IIIa constructed by
Table 6. Energetic evaluation of the refined models
Table 7. Amphipathic analysis of energy refined helices
Figure 7. Energy refined models of from left to right apo lipophorin III(residues 7-156) canine
Figure 8. X-ray Crystal structure of the Apolipoprotein A-I: ? ( 1-43) dimer in solution.
Table 8. Selected Biotechnology Tools and Their Applications
Fig 9a. Detailed Belt model displayed as a helical ribbon. C(NH2)3, blue, oxygen atom, red; phosphorous atom, yellow all other atom, black. ( Source: Borhani 1997)
Fig 9b. Detailed Belt model displayed as all atom model, oriented in 9a. nitrogen atom, blue, oxygen atom, red; carbon atom, cyan, polar hydrogen atom, white. ( Source: Borhani 1997)
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